ReinterpretaciÃ³n FilosÃ³fica de la Paideia TrÃ¡gica
ABSTRACT: Philosophy as paideia is shown here as a resignification of tragedy as paideia in consonance with several contemporary thinkers. In this philosophical reading of tragedy, noted as the confirmation of an Ãªthos starting from pÃ¡thos, the experience of suffering is a privileged instance of learning which generates a peculiar wisdom â€” anagnÃ³risis. Its appropriation gives occasion for a deep conversion that may take place as salvation. Moreover, the tragical paideÃa is â€” in the case of AntÃgone â€” an exemplary surpassing of violence towards justice, and the surpassing of justice in the paradigm of friendship and human solidarity. From AntÃgone, it is possible to throw light on the ethical life (Sittlichkeit), so as to see it as did Hegel. In it there is already a constellation of tensions provoked by the connected incidence of destiny and the action of human liberty. This constitutes the tragical conflict which shakes the home or family, the pÃ³lis, the phÃ½sis and questions of justice and destiny, in order to recover them, perhaps, at a higher level of love and friendship. But above all, AntÃgone presents an alternative to paideÃa because she speaks and acts from alterity, from the brother or sister as the other absent, and so allows the other side to emerge, the other side imperfectly seen until now as an obscure, unconscious, underground â€” the other that one tends to forget and avoid â€” the excluded, the nothing as mystery of being, the kingdom of shadows that exalts the limits of light-figures, the female principle as the gravity-force of the male principle, femininity as 'irony of the community.'
Ensayamos plantear aquÃ cÃ³mo, a partir de Hegel, ciertos textos contemporÃ¡neos evidencian una asombrosa afinidad con la paideia trÃ¡gica. Las figuras de AntÃgona y de Edipo, tal como las caracteriza SÃ³focles, recobran asÃ toda su fuerza educativa de paradigmas Ã©ticos de humanizaciÃ³n. Desde las relecturas de Hegel, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Ricoeur, M. Zambrano, Steiner han sabido liberar nuevas posibilidades a partir de estos modelos trÃ¡gicos.
1.- AntÃgona y el Ãªthos trÃ¡gico
A nosotros nos ha interesado sobre todo la figura de AntÃgona , porque la obra homÃ³nima de SÃ³focles permite no sÃ³lo un relevamiento de la eticidad (magistralmente ya realizado por Hegel), sino que presenta tambiÃ©n una alternativa para la paideia.
En cuanto a la eticidad, la piedad fraterna de AntÃgona tiene raÃces mÃ¡s profundas que un sentimiento subjetivo y azaroso.
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